In training mode, Pediducer will fill in the pedigree for any viable model (one where all genotypes can be assigned without internal contradictions)
In testing/teaching mode, there are two phases
In the first phase, the challenge is to make all valid deductions about genotypes of the individuals in a pedigree.
In the second phase conclusions as to whether a given inheritance model is plausible or not must be drawn and justified
Choose a named set from the Pedigree Sets menu
Choose a numbered pedigree from the list
If the option is highlighted, you may click the 'solve it for me' button to watch the computer deduce its way through the pedigree
The Choose Model... menu will display only those choices that are consistent with the shown pedigree
If solving for yourself, choose one of the 4 possible inheritance models (autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, sex-linked recessive, sex-linked dominant). Note that to complete the exercise, you'll need to examine all four
Working through a pedigree
Note that you'll be considering the phenotypes and inheritance in light of the chosen model
To draw a deduction about an individual, click its number
On the right, the 'Pick genotype...' menu becomes active
Choose the genotype you believe you can validly deduce from existing data
Once a genotype is selected, you must know provide a valid justification for your conclusion
You can one, two or three reasons to support your conclusion
You should use only all the rationales that are necessary and sufficient for the conclusion; stop adding rationales when the conclusion is fully justified
When you've selected the rationale(s) you need, click the 'Check me!' button (or hold down the <SHIFT> button as you select the last of your rationales
If correct, an acknowledgment will appear and the deduction and rationale will appear in the table at bottom
If incorrect, you'll get some guidance as to what you might've missed
Continue selecting individuals and deducing genotypes until either:
you assign a genotype to each individual in the pedigree
you create a family containing internally contradictory genotypes and can thus rule out this trait model as viable
In either case, proceed to the 'set mode' menu and choose 'Rule Model In/Out'
Ruling a model in or out
If you've filled out a genotype for every individual and found not contradictory families, choose 'Prove Plausible' and click Check Ruling. If all's well, it will be added to the 'Plausible' list
If you've found an internal contradiction, choose 'Rule Out'
A series of selections will appear, allowing you to select two parents and a child; use these to indicate the contradictory family
After you make your selections, choose 'Check Rulings'
NOTE!! When in 'deduce genotype' mode, the program is only confirming your deductions 'locally', i.e. do the justifications given allow the conclusion. It is not checking whether that individual could logically be the child of its parents nor if it could be the parent of its children. This is up to you! (though if in teaching mode, the 'families' button will be available which checks each family for internal consistency)
If you've made valid deductions on all 4 models, you're done (you should receive an acknowledgment alert)! Otherwise, return to 'Deduce Genotypes' from the Set Mode menu, pick another model and proceed
Shortcuts and conveniences
You can skip the 'Check me!' button by holding down the <SHIFT> key as you select your final rationale for a given genotype
If you have just successfully concluded a genotype for an individual, you can apply the genotype and rationale to other individuals (for whom the exact genotype and rationale are appropriate) by holding down the SHIFT key and clicking the second individual
You can take a picture of the current state of the pedigree by by clicking 'Pedigree Pic'
Click the Pedigree Pic button
You can close the image by clicking the close box at its upper right
You can recall any image by choosing it from the 'Show Pedi Pic' menu
Only the last image taken of a given pedigree is retained; you can store up to 4 pictures; one for each model
'Solve it for me' walks through a solution of the pedigree. Turn on the sound to hear each deduction. Not available in some cases (such as homework)
'Check families' tests each family unit that you have completed to see if parents could give rise to children. Not available in some cases.